Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
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Slavutskaya E.V., Slavutskii L.A. Preadolescent age: the formation of the interconnections in the personality structure

Full text in Russian: Славутская Е.В., Славутский Л.А. Преподростковый возраст: формирование связей в структуре личности
Chuvash State Pedagogical University
Chuvash State University

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The paper describes the investigations of the psychological qualities of the schoolchildren of 9–12 (preadolescent age). This is a time of crisis preteen. During three years the longitudinal experiment in diagnostics of the emotional, volitional and intellectual sphere was carried out. The research is based on Cattelian Personality Theory. The results of experimental research of the relationship of emotional, volitional qualities and intelligence of pupils of 3–5 grades are presented. For the data processing, the correlation and the factor analysis were used. It is shown that the relationship between different personality characteristics significantly changed during the study. The dynamics of these relationships depending on the intelligence coefficient and gender characteristics of schoolchildren is analyzed. It is found that this age is characterized by rapid formation of interconnections between psychological and personal traits of the children.

Keywords: preadolescent age, emotional, volitional, intellectual qualities, diagnostics, longitudinal experiment, factor analysis

 

Introduction

The age of 9–12 (preadolescent age) is quite complicated and saturated from the psychological viewpoint. In Russian schools it is a period of transition from primary to secondary level. In the U.S. many of the children aged 6–12 are enrolled in primary school, this age is called "middle childhood" [Cole, 1993; Collins, 1984]. Some researchers call this age "preteen". Next age level belongs to the age group of teenager (about 13-17 years).

J.Piaget defines this period as a time of transition from the stage of concrete to the stage of formal thinking operations [Piaget, 1972]. The self-analysis, self-perception of 10–12-year-olds appears as the ability to exercise a deeper synthesis, analysis, ability to explain abstract concepts. This is confirmed by the research of Harter, which studied the age-related changes in the organization of thinking of children and found that by the age of ten, children can analyze and understand complex emotions an ambivalence of the feelings and the relativity of a moral judgments [Harter, 1990]. To define abstract concepts in the Stanford-Binet Test, it is offered to children, which are surveyed after 10 years old.

The major new psychological attribute of this age is the verbal-logical thinking, the occurrence of which significantly restructures other cognitive processes of children [Elkonin, 1995]. To the main attributes (identifications) of this age the psychologists refer the development of a voluntary psychic processes and self-control. Primary school-age ends by the crisis of 11–12, after which the teenager's age is followed.

Many researchers point out features in the development of the children personality of this age. According to Kohlberg, the development of the self-awareness of the children 10–13 is at the conventional level. Guided by the principles of other people, they stick to a symbolic role. It is important for them to get the approval of their behavior from the adults. To the end of this period, their judgment shall be based on the established order, with respect to rules and regulations, submission to authority [Kohlberg, 1984]. According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory the age from 5 to 10 is the latent period of child’s psychosexual development. In this time the socialization and the development of various forms of social and sex-role behavior are in the foreground. E. Erickson, focusing on social development stages, considers the age of 6–12 years as a period of systematic child transmission of knowledge and skills. At this age children most rapidly develop (or, on the contrary, does not develop) the ability to master their environment. With a positive outcome of this development stage the child's successful experience is formed, with negative one - a sense of inadequacy and inability to be on par with others. Initiative, the desire to be active, compete to try their hand at various activities is labeled as characteristics of children of this age [Erikson, 1950].

According to William Collins, between 9 and 12 is such a serious crystallization personality structures that many academic, social and personal students characteristics of this age give the possibility to provide a basis for reliable predictions of their behavior for future 4–6 years. Data on children under 3-th grade do not have the predictive power [Collins, 1984].

This time is a decisive moment of the mental children development. It’s more or less successful flow depends on great deal in school, and often – all further human social life. In the psychological and pedagogical literature the primary school and adolescence ages were studied in many aspects. The period of transition from one age to another has not been studied enough [Elkonin, 1995; Zukerman, 1998]. This age is strategically important from the educational point of view, since it is very sensitive to both negative influences of society and for the assimilation of cultural values [Lipsitz, 1977]. With unconditional relevance of this age period for further mental development of children, many researchers consider that it has still poorly understood.

The focus of this experimental research: how the relationships between personal characteristics are changing during the pre-adolescent age, and how these changes depend on gender and intellectual development of the child?

Methodology of Research

The subject of the study is the interconnections between the emotional, volitional and intellectual qualities of the pre-teen children.

The methodological basis of the study is theCattelian Personality Theory. He believed that personality traits formed the structure of the human person and could be found at the exact measurement of the observed behavior [Cattell, 1990]. According to R.B. Cattell, personality – is what allows us to predict the behavior of a person in this situation. Every personal trait interacts with a combination of situational factors that have an influence on it. Cattell’s theory gives the possibility to use factor analysis, correlation analysis and other data mining techniques [Slavutskaya, 2012] to find the relationship and to determine the most important, dominant traits. Results of the diagnostics in present paper were analyzed for selected groups of students, by gender, level of intellectual development, as well as in the dynamics at the beginning and end of each school grade. Longitudinal study of the relationship between the personal characteristics and IQ was carried out over three years.

Sample of Research

The psychological experiment was realized over three years among schoolchildren of 3–5 grades. At the initial stage 120 children of third grade were tested. Complete results of psycho diagnostics over 3 years were obtained from n = 111 students (56 girls and 55 boys, School No. 24, Cheboksary, Russia), studying in standard education programs. In a longitudinal experiment involved all students, without dividing them into groups based on any grounds. Diagnosis of personality traits and intelligence carried out at the end of third grade, fourth and fifth grade. This corresponds to the age of children 9–12 years old (pre-adolescents). Example of test results is shown in Table. 1.

Table 1
Example of test results

No. Sex   PERSONALITY TRAITS
    IQ A B C D E F G H I O Q3 Q4
1 m 119 6 4 2 1 3 5 4 5 5 4 2 1
n w 112 6 3 2 5 3 4 2 4 4 3 3 2

Note. Personality traits: A – gregariousness – isolation; B – abstract–concrete thinking; C – emotional stability – instability; D – excitement – balance; E –independence – obedience; F – carefree – concern; G – high–low discipline; H – boldness – shyness; I – softness – hardness; O – anxiety – calmness; Q3 – high-low self-control; Q4 – tension – relaxation.

Instrument and Procedures

At the end of the third grade, in the fourth and fifth grades the psychological diagnostics are simultaneously performed by two techniques. IQ was measured using R.B.Cattell’s intelligence test and personal characteristics were tested using the R.B.Cattell’s 12-factor questionnaire. For psycho diagnostics of the third grade pupils a standard questionnaire ESPQ (Early School Personality Questionnaire) for primary school children was used. In the fourth, fifth grades – 12-factor questionnaire CPQ (Childrens Personality Questionnaire) for children of 8–12 years old. Both forms are used to study the personality characteristics of pupils and has 12 scales for measuring the severity of personality traits that R.B. Cattell calls “constitutional” [Cattell, 1990].

For the results processing the correlation and factor analysis were used. For the factor analysis – the program package STATISTICA, with the most spread the principal component method in factor analysis (rotation of the resulting normalized matrix of factor scores by the Varimax method). Analyzes were carried out for all schoolchildren and, separately, – for boys and girls.

Data Analysis

The Tables 2, 3 shows the matrix of the correlation coefficients between the personality traits for boys at the end of the third and in the fifth grade.

Table 2
The matrix of the correlation coefficients between the personality traits for boys at the end of the third grade

Personality traits A C D E F G H I J N O Q4
A 1,00 –0,15 0,11 –0,17 –0,14 0,16 0,46 0,29 0,00 –0,09 –0,11 0,22
C –0,15 1,00 0,06 –0,29 0,25 0,14 –0,04 –0,01 –0,26 0,03 0,17 0,17
D 0,11 0,06 1,00 –0,03 –0,23 –0,30 –0,08 –0,06 –0,27 0,13 0,24 0,16
E –0,17 –0,29 –0,03 1,00 –0,24 0,11 –0,06 0,07 –0,19 –0,21 0,04 –0,05
F –0,14 0,25 –0,23 –0,24 1,00 0,20 –0,02 0,10 0,22 0,17 –0,12 –0,08
G 0,16 0,14 –0,30 0,11 0,20 1,00 0,09 0,29 0,06 0,12 –0,06 0,04
H 0,46 –0,04 –0,08 –0,06 –0,02 0,09 1,00 0,44 0,38 0,00 –0,12 –0,12
I 0,29 –0,01 –0,06 0,07 0,10 0,29 0,44 1,00 0,17 0,16 –0,02 –0,13
J 0,00 –0,26 –0,27 –0,19 0,22 0,06 0,38 0,17 1,00 0,03 –0,28 –0,26
N –0,09 0,03 0,13 –0,21 0,17 0,12 0,00 0,16 0,03 1,00 0,01 –0,12
O –0,11 0,17 0,24 0,04 –0,12 –0,06 –0,12 –0,02 –0,28 0,01 1,00 0,15
Q4 0,22 0,17 0,16 –0,05 –0,08 0,04 –0,12 –0,13 –0,26 –0,12 0,15 1,00

Note. Personality traits: A – gregariousness – isolation; B – abstract–concrete thinking; C – emotional stability – instability; D – excitement – balance; E –independence – obedience; F – carefree – concern; G – high–low discipline; H – boldness – shyness; I – softness – hardness; O – anxiety – calmness; Q3 – high-low self-control; Q4 – tension – relaxation; J – Vigorous – Doubting; N – Forthright – Shrewd. Italics correlation coefficients are of the significance level p < 0,025.


Table 3
The matrix of the correlation coefficients between the personality traits for boys at the fifth grade.

Personality traits A B C D E F G H I O Q3 Q4
A 1,00 0,38 0,41 –0,12 –0,53 0,02 0,41 0,61 0,24 –0,27 0,42 –0,47
B 0,38 1,00 0,06 –0,12 –0,16 –0,24 0,41 0,25 –0,07 –0,00 0,14 –0,08
C 0,41 0,06 1,00 –0,14 –0,21 –0,08 0,22 0,28 –0,19 –0,40 0,20 –0,34
D –0,12 –0,12 –0,14 1,00 0,46 0,39 –0,31 –0,04 –0,05 0,35 –0,35 0,42
E –0,53 –0,16 –0,21 0,46 1,00 0,08 –0,54 –0,51 –0,28 0,33 –0,46 0,45
F 0,02 –0,24 –0,08 0,39 0,08 1,00 –0,47 0,07 –0,30 –0,02 –0,49 0,23
G 0,41 0,41 0,22 –0,31 –0,54 –0,47 1,00 0,38 0,21 –0,29 0,55 –0,46
H 0,61 0,25 0,28 –0,04 –0,51 0,07 0,38 1,00 0,31 –0,18 0,26 –0,32
I 0,24 –0,07 –0,19 –0,05 –0,28 –0,30 0,21 0,31 1,00 0,03 0,47 –0,43
O –0,27 –0,00 –0,40 0,35 0,33 –0,02 –0,29 –0,18 0,03 1,00 –0,08 0,52
Q3 0,42 0,14 0,20 –0,35 –0,46 –0,49 0,55 0,26 0,47 –0,08 1,00 –0,55
Q4 –0,47 –0,08 –0,34 0,42 0,45 0,23 –0,46 –0,32 –0,43 0,52 –0,55 1,00

Note. Personality traits: A – gregariousness – isolation; B – abstract–concrete thinking; C – emotional stability – instability; D – excitement – balance; E –independence – obedience; F – carefree – concern; G – high–low discipline; H – boldness – shyness; I – softness – hardness; O – anxiety – calmness; Q3 – high-low self-control; Q4 – tension – relaxation; J – Vigorous – Doubting; N – Forthright – Shrewd. Italics correlation coefficients are of the significance levelp < 0,025.


As the tables show, for two years passed between testing, the relationships between individual personality traits increases, both quantitatively (more features are interconnected) and qualitatively (the correlation coefficient increases from r ≈ 0,30  up to r ≈ 0,45). For the Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = 0,45, with a sample of 50 people, the significance level for two-sided criterion is p < 0,0005. In practice, this means the stable interconnections with a very high degree of reliability. Similar results were observed for the girls.

The changing of the relationships between personality traits can be observed using the factor analysis. To assess how the related symptoms are grouped, the factor analysis of psycho diagnostic data was performed. For the quantitative assessment of the integral relationships of personality traits, the four main factors were selected. The sum of uniqueness (contribution S, % of these factors to total variance) was in different cases from 52 to 86%.

The choice of such a number of factors (four) corresponds to the obtained results of the factor analysis of the 12 characteristics (personality traits on a sample of all 111 students). Figure 1 shows the dependence of the eigenvalues E of the N = 12 factors for the test results of all students at the end of the third (curve 1) and the fifth (curve 2) grades. To select the number of the main factors the Kaiser’s criterion [Kaiser, 1960] and (or) the "scree test" criterion [Cattell, 1965] is widely used. As follows from the Figure 1, the choice of the 4 factors conforms to the Kaiser’s criterion for both curves (for the first four factors E >1), and for the curve 2 (5th grade) – choice of the four factors is justified by both criteria.




Figure 1. The dependence of the eigenvalues E of the N = 12 factors for the test results of all students at the end of the third (curve 1) and the fifth (curve 2) grades.


In the Table 4 the results of factor analysis of girl’s psycho diagnostic at the end of the third–fifth grade, obtained from the total sample of all students split by gender, are presented. The table shows how personality traits of the schoolchildren are distributed in the factors with different uniqueness. Of these, the first factor (F1) has the largest uniqueness (contribution to total variance), the fourth (F4) – lowest one. These data are the most significant for an assessment of how the relationship between personality traits changed during the experiment. Italics is highest factor loadings for interpretation of the psychological meaning of each of the four main components. Uniqueness is the important value, which expresses the percentage contribution of each factor to the total variance. As seen from Table 4, the combination of traits that form four main factors F1–F4, varies substantially to the end of the investigated period. Only certain of these relationships are saved. In addition, the total contribution of these four factors in the total variance S increases from 57 to 69 percents.

Table 4
The results of factor analysis of girl’s psycho diagnostic at the end of the third–fifth grade, obtained from the total sample of all students split by gender

Personality traits Girls, 3-th grade Girls, 5-th grade
Factors F1 F2 F3 F4   F1 F2 F3 F4
A 0,04 0,10 –0,63 0,07 A –0,48 0,76 0,06 0,01
C 0,01 0,16 0,21 –0,81 B 0,11 0,77 0,14 –0,16
D –0,66 –0,32 0,16 –0,03 C –0,10 0,81 0,08 0,11
E –0,65 0,25 –0,12 –0,44 D 0,79 0,04 0,09 0,34
F 0,21 0,72 0,06 0,03 E 0,79 0,17 –0,23 –0,13
G 0,39 0,31 0,42 0,09 F 0,28 0,52 –0,51 0,03
H 0,28 –0,62 –0,01 –0,37 G –0,72 0,14 0,06 0,12
I 0,00 0,03 –0,72 0,01 H 0,01 0,01 –0,03 –0,95
J 0,57 –0,01 –0,45 –0,10 I –0,07 0,27 0,82 0,06
N –0,04 0,29 0,13 0,55 O 0,53 –0,53 0,36 –0,21
O –0,75 –0,08 –0,12 0,21 Q3 –0,65 0,26 0,15 –0,08
Q4 –0,16 –0,72 0,30 0,23 Q4 0,77 –0,03 0,01 –0,04
S,% 17,28 14,96 12,6 11,82 S,% 28,24 21,33 9,87 9,54

Note. The Personality traits are the same as in Tables 1–3.

Results

The data in the Table 4 can be interpreted as follows:

The interpretation of the factors at the end of third grade. The first factor (F1) with the maximum uniqueness includes such related qualities as poise, humility, and low anxiety. We can assume that girls, who have anxiety lower, more balanced and less show dominance. In this factor the communicative (E) and the personal emotional qualities (O, D) appeared to be connected.

Factor F2 shows the connection of high frustration, communicational shyness and the carelessness. This factor is also communicative and emotional. Thus the girls, timid in communication, have a lot of stress, frustration, perhaps - as a result of the unmet needs in communication.

In the factor F3 the association of the offishness in communion and strength of character can be observed.

The emotional instability (C) is allocated at the end of the third grade in the separate factor F4.

The interpretation of the factors at the end of fifth grade. The factor F1 connects such qualities as anxiety, independence and high anxiety. The similar relationships of these very qualities (but – with the opposite sign) is allocated to the first factor in the third grade. At the fifth grade they are joined to the low voluntary control of behavior, the low conscientiousness and the high frustration. A set of qualities reflecting the negative psychological state of girls at the end of fifth grade. The totality of these qualities can be identificated as symptoms of anxiety neurosis [Slavutskaya, 2013].

The factor F2 includes sociability, high verbal intelligence and emotional stability. We can assume that the girls with a strong verbal intelligence are more emotionally stable at that age.

In the factors F3 and F4 stood out, respectively, the softness of (I) and the timidity (–H) of girls.

Thus, in the dynamics of the third–fifth grades, for the girls possible, in general, to trace the relationship of emotional qualities and communication skills. In particular, the imbalance remains associated with independence (5-th grade), or balance – obedience (3-th grade).

As the analysis of the results, the relationships of personal characteristics significantly differ for students with different intellectual development. Table 5 shows the results of factor analysis of data from the fifth grade girls. Here the data processing was carried out jointly of the two tests results (IQ +12 qualities).

Comparing the results of the factor analysis girls fifth grade c IQ < 100 and c IQ > 100, it can be seen that for both groups in the factor F1 (maximum uniqueness) personality traits such as independence and irritability, low voluntary control of behavior, anxiety and frustration are interrelated. These features of the maladjustment, social exclusion may be typical characteristic of girls with different levels of intelligence at that age [Slavutskaya, 2012]. The relationships of personality traits with IQ were evaluated. The girls with IQ > 100 characterized by the fact that as lower their intelligence, as higher dominance and communicational carelessness [Slavutskaya,2011; Slavutskaya,2013].

Their sociability (A) associated with verbal intelligence (B). In the factor F4 communicational boldness (H) is directly correlated with the hardness of their character and upbringing (I). For girls with IQ <100 you can say the more sociable girls of that age show greater emotional stability and low anxiety. Their intelligence is directly related to the personality traits of the soft character and upbringing (I).

Table 5
The results of factor analysis of girl’s psycho diagnostic at the fifth grade

Personality traits Girls, IQ > 100 Girls, IQ < 100
Factors F1 F2 F3 F4 F1 F2 F3 F4
IQ 0,20 –0,65 0,28 0,14 0,19 0,26 0,80 0,28
A –0,57 –0,02 0,69 –0,19 0,07 0,92 0,12 0,23
B 0,08 -0,03 0,87 0,10 0,54 0,51 0,49 –0,05
C –0,02 0,48 0,50 –0,33 0,08 0,88 0,26 0,06
D 0,75 0,20 –0,01 0,35 0,55 –0,10 –0,20 –0,74
E 0,60 0,58 0,03 0,13 0,85 –0,17 –0,23 –0,20
F –0,06 0,77 0,17 0,14 0,80 0,27 –0,00 –0,08
G –0,69 –0,00 –0,10 –0,36 –0,50 0,49 0,15 0,50
H 0,19 0,24 0,10 0,62 –0,06 –0,02 0,03 0,88
I 0,10 0,16 0,16 –0,75 –0,38 0,00 0,87 –0,02
O 0,73 –0,18 –0,20 –0,10 0,20 –0,89 0,07 0,17
Q3 –0,45 0,04 0,48 –0,06 –0,78 0,38 0,11 0,12
Q4 0,82 –0,26 –0,07 0,14 0,90 0,10 0,18 –0,09
S,% 24,84 13,92 14,66 11,09 29,65 24,85 14,51 13,87

Note. The Personality traits are the same as in Tables 1–3.


The corresponding results for the fifth-grade boys are shown in Table 6. For the fifth grade boys with IQ < 100 communication and will power are related in the first factor with the greatest uniqueness. The most disturbing are unbalanced, excitable children, and less frustrated – those with IQ below. Verbal intelligence is associated with communication skills. This connection of emotional qualities with intelligence observed for the boys with IQ > 100, too. As higher intelligence in this group of children, as higher their anxiety and emotional instability are. Verbal intelligence is also linked to communication skills.

Table 6
The results of factor analysis of boy’s psycho diagnostic at the fifth grade

Personality traits Boys, IQ > 100 Boys, IQ < 100
Factors F1 F2 F3 F4 F1 F2 F3 F4
IQ 0,13 –0,28 0,82 0,10 0,39 –0,17 –0,25 0,79
A 0,86 0,07 –0,12 0,03 0,85 0,04 –0,15 –0,01
B 0,62 –0,10 0,28 0,37 0,01 0,83 0,03 0,45
C 0,16 –0,11 –0,82 0,12 0,24 0,06 –0,44 0,10
D 0,10 –0,08 –0,01 –0,88 0,01 –0,16 0,80 0,18
E –0,58 –0,16 0,10 –0,57 –0,67 0,55 0,20 –0,14
F 0,26 –0,68 0,03 –0,53 –0,21 –0,88 0,27 0,15
G 0,49 0,12 –0,14 0,68 0,81 0,44 –0,26 –0,02
H 0,83 0,15 –0,20 –0,10 0,65 –0,03 0,33 –0,30
I 0,25 0,88 0,16 –0,09 0,56 –0,14 –0,16 –0,60
O –0,36 0,29 0,60 –0,23 –0,02 0,06 0,98 0,04
Q3 0,16 0,71 –0,19 0,44 0,91 0,08 –0,08 0,02
Q4 –0,41 –0,37 0,37 –0,49 –0,30 0,20 0,36 0,77
S,% 22,27 16,39 15,76 19,18 28,79 16,10  17,96 15,11

Note. The Personality traits are the same as in Tables 1–3.


Thus, for the boys with IQ < 100 and IQ > 100 observed the more same type of relationships of the qualities than for the girls one. For example, for the boys of both IQ groups is associated with emotional qualities, verbal intelligence (B) – with communication. Self-willed behavior is directly linked to communication skills. In addition, the boys are not such "hot" in the expression of related negative qualities, as the girls of 3–5 grades [Slavutskaya, 2011].

Fig. 2,3 illustrates the dynamics of change in quantitative relationships between personal qualities of the students throughout the experiment (end of third grade, fourth and fifth grade). It is show the total contribution (the sum of uniqueness) of the first four factors for children of both sexes and different IQ levels. In accordance with histograms, the changing in the relationships between personality traits depends essentially on intellectual development. For the children with high IQ the total contribution of the first four factors from the 13 initial qualities (and therefore – and the extent of the relationship of the psychological qualities) varies at the range of 10%. For the children with IQ < 100, this value (the contribution of the first four factors to total variance) increases monotonically. For example, for the girls, this change is about 30% (from 54 to 83%, Figure 2,3).




Figure 2. The dynamics of change in quantitative relationships between personal traits (IQ > 100).



Figure 3. The dynamics of change in quantitative relationships between personal traits (IQ < 100).


If the dynamics of change in the degree of the relationship of personality traits are evaluated by the first two factors with higher uniqueness, the results are even more visible. For the girls with IQ <100, the total contribution of the first two factors grows to the end of the fifth grade from 29 to 54% (see Tables 4, 5).

Discussion

The growth (rapid formation) of the interconnections between the personal characteristics at the period from 9 to 12 years old is observed.  For the school children with IQ below average in the period of 9–12 years the formation of the relationship between personality and individual psychological characteristics is faster than  for the children with an IQ above average.

Readiness for the next age period, in particular, the willingness to learn in middle school is increasingly characterized by interconnections formed between the personal and psychological characteristics. Those children whose interconnections are not formed or weak, show unreadiness to learn in middle school.

From the viewpoint of system analysis – qualitative and quantitative formation of the interrelationships in time speaks about the complication of the system, indicating  the preparation for the transition to the next level (in this case corresponds to the transition to the next age period).

Thus, in our empirical study confirms the concept of "psychological systems" as a integral structure in various forms of cross-functional relationships: we discovered the relationship between the personal and individual psychological characteristics are formed into groups of qualities (clusters), which may be regarded as "psychological attributes", specific to this age period.

L.S.Vygotsky pointed out that stable ages studied much better than those which are characterized by the development of the crisis. "In the relatively stable periods the development takes place mainly due to microscopic changes in the child's personality, which accumulate to a certain limit, and then abruptly found in the form of any age new growth" [Vygotsky, 1984, p. 66]. In our study, we observed a similar accumulation, increasing in the formation of interrelationships during longitudinal study of children age 9–12 years.

Conclusions

Thus, in the dynamics of 3–5 grades for the boys with different levels of intelligence are observed over single-type interconnections between personality traits than for the girls one. Factors of emotional distress are more pronounced for the girls. At the same time, the dynamics of the interconnections between personality traits for the children with low intellectual development is much higher. So:

1. During the period of investigations the fast formation of quantitative and qualitative interconnections between the psychological characteristics of children is occurred. This is confirmed by the results of correlation and factor analysis.

2. Some psychological characteristics are grouped with stable relationships. Such groups of a qualities (clusters) can be considered as "psychological attributes", typical for this age period.

3. Groups of the interconnected psychological characteristics of pre-adolescents, we called the "psychological attributes ", have the gender differences.

4. If the relationships between psychological characteristics are not formed to the end of primary school age, they begin to be formed quickly in the negative field, including stable interconnected groups of qualities as a "fifth-grade maladjustment syndrome" [Slavutskaya, 2013].


Funding
The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities, project 14-16-21013 a /r.


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Received 7 January 2013. Date of publication: 30 October 2014.

About authors

Slavutskaya Elena V. Ph.D., Associated professor, Department of Psychology and Social Pedagogy, Chuvash State Pedagogical University, ul. K.Marksa, 38, 428000 Cheboksary, Russia.
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Slavutskii Leonid A. Ph.D., Professor, Department of Automatics and Management, Chuvash State University, Moskovskii pr., 15, 428015 Cheboksary, Russia.
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Suggested citation

Slavutskaya E.V., Slavutskii L.A. Preadolescent age: the formation of the interconnections in the personality structure. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2014, Vol. 7, No. 37, p. 6. http://psystudy.ru (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL: http://psystudy.ru/index.php/eng/2014v7n37e/1053-slavutskaya37e.html

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