Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


Gritsenko V.V., Smotrova T.N., Gavronova Yu.D. The theoretical review of collective guilt and collective shame studies in foreign psychology

Full text in Russian: Гриценко В.В., Смотрова Т.Н., Гавронова Ю.Д. Теоретический анализ исследований коллективной вины и коллективного стыда в зарубежной психологии
Smolensk University for the Humanities, Smolensk, Russia;
Balashov Institute of Saratov State University, Balashov, Russia;
Smolensk State University, Smolensk, Russia

About authors
Suggested citation

The theoretical review of foreign publications devoted to the problem of group feeling of guilt and shame is presented in the article; main approaches to this problem are identified. The basic factors that influence the development of the above feelings are analyzed; the characteristics of motivation and the consequences of collective guilt and shame experience is given; the relationship of group guilt and shame with other group feelings and the degree of group identity manifestation is determined; the role of group guilt and shame in the development of positive intergroup interaction is shown. In addition, the theoretical guidelines that may form the basis for domestic empirical studies are emphasized.

Keywords: group feelings, collective guilt, collective shame, theoretical review, foreign studies


The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities, project 13-06-00492.


Abdel-Nour F. National Responsibility. Political Theory, 2003, 31(5), 693–719.

Baumeister R.F., Stillwell A.M., Heatherton T.F. Guilt: An interpersonal approach. Psychological Bulletin, 1994, 115(2), 243–267.

Berndsen M., McGarty C. The impact of magnitude of harm and perceived difficulty of making reparations on group-based guilt and reparation towards victims of historical harm. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2010, 40(3), 500–513.

Bergsieker H.B., Shelton J.N., Richeson J.A. To be liked versus respected: Divergent goals in interracial interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010, 99(2), 248–264.

Boeckmann R.J., Feather N.T. Gender, discrimination beliefs, group-based guilt, and response to affirmative action for Australian women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2007, 31(3), 290–304.

Brown R., Cehajic S. Dealing with the past and facing the future: Mediators of the effects of collective guilt and shame in Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2008, 38(4), 669–684.

Castano E., Giner-Sorolla R.  Not quite human: Infrahumanization in response to collective responsibility for intergroup killing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2006, 90(5), 804–818.

de Hooge I.E., Zeelenberg M., Breugelmans S.M. Restore and protect motivations following shame. Cognition and Emotion, 2010, 24(1), 111–127.

Doosje B., Branscombe N.R., Spears R., Manstead A.S.R. Consequences of national ingroup identification for responses to immoral historical events. In: N.R. Branscombe, B. Doosje (Eds.), Collective guilt: International perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. рр. 95–111.

Dovidio J.F., Saguy T., Shnabel N. Cooperation and conflict within groups: Bridging intragroup and intergroup processes. Journal of Social Issues, 2009, 65(2), 429–449.

Fessler D.M.T. Shame in two cultures: Implications for evolutionary approaches. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 2004, 4(2), 207–262.

Fraher A.L. Collective Guilt as a Force for Change: A Concept Paper. Socioanalysis: Journal of Group Relations Australia, 2007, 9 (December), 1–18.

Giner-Sorolla R., Castano E., Espinosa P., Brown R.J. Shame expressions reduce the recipient’s insult from outgroup reparations. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 2008, 44(3), 519–526.

Halloran M.J. Indigenous reconciliation in Australia: Do values, identity and collective guilt matter? Journal of Community and Applied Psychology, 2007, 17(1), 1–18.

Harth N.S., Kessler T., Leach C.W. Advantaged group’s emotional reactions to intergroup inequality: The dynamics of pride, guilt, and sympathy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2008, 34(1), 115–129.

Iyer A., Leach C.W., Crosby F.J. White guilt and racial compensation: The benefits and limits of self-focus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2003, 29(1), 117–129.

Iyer A., Schmader T., Lickel B. Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: The role of anger, shame, and guilt. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2007, 33(4), 572–587.

Johns M., Schmader T., Lickel B. Ashamed to be an American? The role of identification in predicting vicarious shame for Anti-Arab prejudice after 9–11. Self and Identity, 2005, 4(4), 331–348.

Kessler T., Hollbach S. Group-based emotions as determinants of ingroup identification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2005, 41(6), 677–685.

Leach C., Iyer A., Pedersen A. Anger and guilt about ingroup advantage explain the willingness for political action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2006, 32(9), 1232–1245.

Lickel B., Schmader T., Curtis M., Scarnier M., Ames D.R. Vicarious shame and guilt. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 2005, 8(2), 145–157.

Lickel B., Steele R., Schmader T. Group-Based Shame and Guilt. Emerging Directions in Research. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2011, 5(3), 153–163.

Luhtanen R., Crocker J. A collective self-esteem scale: Self-evaluation of one’s social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1992, 18(2), 302–318.

McGarty C., Pedersen A., Leach C.W., Mansell T., Waller J., Bliuc A.M. Group-based guilt as a predictor of commitment to apology. British Journal of Social Psychology, 2005, 44(4), 659–680.

Prihidko A.I. Zhurnal Vysshei Shkoly Ekonomiki, 2009, 4(6), 103–116. (in Russian)

Prihid'ko A.I., Gulevich O.A.Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2010, 1(9), URL: (in Russian)

Roccas S., Klar Y., Liviatan I. The paradox of group-based guilt: Modes of national identification, conflict vehemence, and reactions to the in-group’s moral violations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2006, 91(4), 698–711.

Saguy T., Pratto F., Dovidio J., Nadler A. Talking about power: Group power and the desired content of intergroup interactions. In: S. Demoulin, J-P. Leyens, J.F. Dovidio (Eds.), Intergroup misunderstandings: Impact of divergent social realities. New York: Psychology Press, 2009. pp. 213–232.

Scarnier M., Schmader T., Lickel B. Parental shame and guilt: Distinguishing emotional responses to a child’s wrongdoing. Personal Relationships, 2009, 16(2), 205–220.

Schmader T., Lickel B. The approach and avoidance function of guilt and shame emotions: comparing reactions to self-caused and other-caused wrongdoing. Motivation and Emotion, 2006a, 30(1), 43–56.

Schmader T., Lickel B. Stigma and shame: Emotional responses to the stereotypic actions of one’s ethnic ingroup. In: S. Levin, C.van Laar (Eds.), Stigma and group inequality: Social psychological approaches. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006b, 281–286.

Shnabel N., Nadler A. A needs-based model of reconciliation: Satisfying the differential needs of victim and perpetrator as key to promoting reconciliation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2008, 94(1), 116–132.

Shnabel N., Nadler A., Ullrich J., Dovidio J.F., Carmi D. Promoting reconciliation through the satisfaction of the emotional needs of victimized and perpetrating group members: The Needs-Based Model of Reconciliation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2009, 35(8), 1021–1030.

Tajfel H. Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Tangney J.P., Fischer K.W. Self-conscious emotions. New York: Guilford, 1995.

Tangney J.P., Stuewig J., Mashek D.J. Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 2007, 58(1), 345–372.

Thomas E.F., McGarty C., Mavor K.I. Transforming "apathy into movement": The role of prosocial emotions in motivating action for social change. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2009, 13(4), 310–333.

Wohl M.J.A. Brasncombe N.R. Collective guilt: Emotional reactions when one’s group has done wrong or been wronged. European Review of Social Psychology, 2006, 17(1), 1–37.

Received 24 February 2014. Date of publication: 29 June 2014.

About authors

Gritsenko Valentina V. Ph.D., Professor, Head of Department of General and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Law, Smolensk University for Humanities, ul. Gertsena, 2, 214014 Smolensk, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Smotrova Tatyana N. Ph.D., Associate Professor, Head of Department of Psychology and Pedagogy of Vocational Education, Faculty of Socio-Humanities, Balashov Institute, Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, ul. Karla Marksa, 29, 412300 Balashov, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Gavronova Yuliya D. Assistant, Department of Foreign Languages, Smolensk State University, ul. Przheval'skogo, 4, 214000 Smolensk, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Gritsenko V.V., Smotrova T.N., Gavronova Yu.D. The theoretical review of collective guilt and collective shame studies in foreign psychology. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2014, Vol. 7, No. 35, p. 5. (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL:

Back to top >>

Related Articles