Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

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Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

 


Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya

Journal Editorial Board
 

2018 Vol. 11 Issue 62 :: In Press

 

Kornienko D.S., Baleva M.V., Rudnova N.A. "Good and simple, bad and complex": the perceived image of another and the Dark triad

The Dark triad as a constellation of three sub-clinical traits of Machiavellism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy attracts researcher’s attention in the recent decades. The Dark triad is associated with exploitive and manipulate behavior, and limited empathy. Most studies showed connections of the Dark Triad traits with other personality and behavioral characteristics. However, studies about the perception of persons with "dark" personality are rare. The first purpose of this study is to reveal how people with the extreme manifestations of the Dark Triad traits perceive and evaluate Positive and Negative other people. The second is to analyze the association of the respondent’s traits with the evaluation and attitude to the Positive and Negative persons. The sample consists of 460 undergraduate students. Positive and Negative images of the other (video clip) were presented to the respondents. Then each image was evaluated by the (non)relevant characteristics of the Dark Triad and the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of the attitude. Also, respondents were diagnosed with Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. The polarization of assessments and attitudes toward Positive and Negative images of the others were discovered. The role of the negative traits of the respondents was manifested. Higher values of the Dark Triad traits make the Negative image more complex and difficult to evaluate in opposition "good-bad" The cognitive component of attitude toward Positive and Negative image become closer for respondents with high Dark triad traits.

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Nasledov A.D., Miroshnikov S.A., Tkacheva L.O. Identification of prognostic markers of developmental delay in 5-year-olds

This article is a continuation of our previous publication dedicated to 4-year-old children. This article presents an analysis of the factor structure of abilities of 5-year-old children with scales elaboration which differentiate most accurately typically developing children of this age ("Norm") and children with developmental delay ("DD"). The sample of the research consisted of 604 children (527 of Norm and 53 of DD group). To identify points which most significantly separate groups ("Norm" and "DD") stepwise procedures of discriminant and factor analysis were used with subsequent verification of the reliability of isolated factors-scales and eventually the predictive model was constructed using SEM. As a result, a set of predictors was selected, which are reliable markers of DD of 5year-olds. The set of these predictors broadly coincides with the predictors for 4-year-olds and includes the following main components (in descending order of their contribution to the prediction): "Logical judgment", "Motor Skills", "General awareness". Scales corresponding to these components form a general scale in conjunction with age which allows precise indicating DD’ "risk group". As a result of standardization, test standards were developed for this general scale which demonstrates high sensitivity of the prediction of DD (90.9%) when the value of the specificity of the Norm prediction is 94%. The final conclusion is that the only predictor of the diagnosis (Norm or DD) is G-factor, the indicators of which are the selected scales. The opportunity of using the obtained standards for the rapid identification of the "risk group" for further differential diagnosis among 5-year-olds is proposed.

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Zakharova A.V. N.Zhinkin’s thesis for candidate’s degree: content and its place in his scientific career

The paper is an attempt to analyze and provide an overview of unpublished thesis of a well-known psychologist and linguist Nikolay Zhinkin, titled "Intonation in connection with general issues of expression" (1944–1947). The author deploys the circumstances of Zhinkin’s biography related to writing the thesis, its purpose and objectives, its role in experimental study of intonation, planned by the scientist. The author describes the structure of the thesis and outlines principal content of its chapters. Special attention is given to Zhinkin’s analysis of theoretical approaches applied by psychologists, logicians, linguists and art experts while studying the expression phenomena. The author explains the importance of multidisciplinary approach towards understanding expression, repeatedly highlighted by Nikolay Zhinkin in his study.  Apart from special comments on proportion of chapters devoted to expression and intonation in the thesis, the author provides Zhinkin’s arguments for more in-depth expression research aiming to clarify the role of intonation in a variety of expressive means.  Special attention is given to the concept of "speech action" introduced by N.Zhinkin to explain the phenomena of expression and intonation. The author briefly describes the structure of action as a general concept to highlight the suggestion made by the linguist and psychologist about expression as the essential means of accomplishing an action. The author emphasizes Zhinkin’s applying both psychological and linguistic approaches, concepts and terminology for describing the phenomena of intonation serving as one of expressive means in the action structure. The author briefly outlines the role of Nikolay Zhinkin’s unpublished thesis in creating his later, currently widely-known works. Basing on particular significance of the study, firstly fully combining his experience in psychology and theory of art for examining a linguistic object, the hypothesis presented is that the thesis forms a transfer and link between two periods of Zhinkin’s scientific career: psychological and linguistic.

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Pryaznikov N.S., Molchanov S.V., Kirsanov K.A. Moral and value bases of the process of professional self-determination in adolescence

Professional and personal self-determination is the key task of adolescence and is associated with the search for a person's value and sense basis of his life. The research is aimed to study the role of value priorities in the process of professional self-determination in adolescence. The success of professional self-determination can be operationalized in the form of the status of identity in the profession (E.Erikson, D.Marcia) and personal professional perspective (E.Klimov, N.S.Pryazhnikov). The tasks of the empirical research included determining the characteristics of adolescents' professional self-determination and studying the connection between the characteristics of adolescent value preferences and the level of professional self-determination. The methods of determining the personal professional perspective of N.S.Pryazhnikov (as modified by O.A.Karabanova, V.S.Vologzhanina); the method of determining the status of identity in the field of professional self-determination of D.Marcia in the modification of O.A.Karabanova, V.R.Orestova; technique of value orientations of S.Schwartz were used. The study involved 144 people aged 15 to 17 years, including 48% of boys and 52% of girls. The unevenness of the formation of the components of the personal professional perspective was revealed. The status of identity in the field of professional self-determination was identified. Differences in the significance of the values of "achievement", "universality-tolerance", "independence of thoughts" and "independence of actions" between groups of adolescents differing in the maturity of professional self-determination were found. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis about the role of the value factor in the success of professional self-determination in adolescence. The high status of identity in the profession (moratorium and achieved identity) is combined with the high importance of the values of "achievement" and "universalism-tolerance" and the high level of formation of the components of personal professional perspective is consistent with the importance of the values of "achievement", "independence of thoughts and actions".

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Tikhomandritskaya O.A., Malysheva N.G., Shaekhov Z.D., Kabalnov N.A. Theoretical interpretation of the relationship between personal values and psychological well-being among high school students

The problem of wellbeing of the person, main types of wellbeing is considered (social, economic, psychological), features of objective and subjective wellbeing are distinguished, the review of theoretical approaches to studying of psychological wellbeing within anthropocentric model is presented. The main works, of both foreign and domestic authors, devoted to the analysis of happiness as a significant component of subjective wellbeing are considered. The examples of successful people description received during the empirical researches are given. Two main approaches to understanding of an essence of wellbeing are allocated: hedonistic and eudemonistic. The multidimensional model of psychological wellbeing of the American psychologist Carol Riff developed within eudemonistic approach is presented. Attention is paid to social, social and psychological and personal factors of psychological wellbeing, with emphasis on the importance of values as regulators of social behavior. The short description of social and personal values specifics, roles of values in knowledge of social reality, in creation of the world image is given. The modified model of universal contents and structure of values of S.Schwartz, in which values act as evaluation criteria of various events, people and persons themselves, is presented. The assumption is formulated that personal values determine assessment of the wellbeing, give the opportunity to compare the desirable to real and by that to define for themselves the importance of the reached results. At the same time values give sense to achievements of the person which can affect features of the emotional experience and understanding of the wellbeing level. Need of the analysis of values and psychological wellbeing relations of the senior teenagers is proved as at this age there is an active formation of valuable structure of the personality.

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Martsinkovskaya T.D. Psychological aspects of technological society

The psychological content of transitivity and its phenomenology is analyzed. The problem of the world-image in a modern technological society is considered. It is shown that from the point of view of psychological parameters of the image of the world, it is possible to state significant civilizational changes, since the internalization of technology took place. Modern technical and informational space, first of all, the Internet, became one of the aspects of the content of the world-image and even the self-image. Modern ways of communication and movement significantly changed people's ideas about space and time, which had an important impact not only on the cognitive component of the image of the world, but also on emotional well-being and attitude to new technological achievements and new cultures. The data received in empirical studies of the influence of identity styles and ways of processing information on the attitude to new information technologies and tolerance to the new technological and information space are presented. It is shown that the information style of identity, along with a digital style of perceiving information, is one of the most important factors influencing the positive attitude to new technologies and the plurality of sociocultural contexts of the modern world. At the same time, the leading factor that determines tolerance to new technologies is the experience of working with them and a professional motivation. These factors do not depend on the age and style of identity. Acceptance of a new technological society is reflected in the content of a personal page in social networks, which in many respects is identical to the image of the world, helping to optimize relations with the world and other people.

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2018 Vol. 11 Issue 61