Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

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Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

Leontiev D.A., Mospan A.N., Mitina O.V. Elaboration and validation of the feedback sensitivity scale

Sensitivity to feedback is an individual psychological variable that plays an important role in the process of self-regulation. It represents the ability of a person to respond to the success of his or her actions and adjust the activity in accordance with the assessment of this success. The purpose of this research was to define the construct of sensitivity to feedback, in particular to develop and validate one-dimensional psychometric scale of sensitivity to feedback diagnostics. The paper presents the results of two studies in which the scale was tested. The sample of the first research includes first-year students of Moscow universities (N = 199). In order to obtain a design validation of the scale, the relationship between sensitivity to feedback and the parameters of psychological wellbeing and motivation is presented. These include types of motivational regulation (autonomous and controlled), flow in educational / professional activities, style of explaining successes and failures, subjective wellbeing, positive and negative affect. The second study investigated more specific relationships between sensitivity to feedback and parameters of self-regulation. The sample includes second- and third-year students of MSU branch in Tashkent (N = 104). The second study provides correlational analysis of the following parameters: control of actions in situations of failure, planning and implementation; scales of a Big Five Questionnaire; the individual’s attitude to the life experience. According to the results, the scale correlated significantly with several measures of psychological wellbeing and self-regulation. Minor corrections of the draft version of the scale (one point has been excluded) indicate the scale consistency and normal distribution of the scores. The research justifies the sensitivity to feedback scale as a useful tool both for fundamental research and applied contexts.

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Rasskazova E.I., Emelin V.A., Tkhostov A.Sch. Cognitive components of radical attitudes and readiness to extreme

The spread of various forms of radicalism in modern society is one of the most complex and disturbing phenomena: from the simple intransigence of opponents to religious fundamentalism, extremism and terrorism. The purpose of this study was to develop a working model of the cognitive components of radical attitudes and their verification on study of readiness for extreme behavior. We define radicalism as a personal style that manifests itself in interaction with other people in that in certain social situations only one option (actions, behaviors, events) is considered as correct and acceptable, and a person is ready to defend it at any cost, including aggressively and with the use of extreme action. Theoretical analysis suggested seven cognitive components of radical attitudes: the propensity to defend one’s opinion at any cost, black-and-white thinking, impulsive decision making, the idea of the acceptability of a public expression of aggression and interest in its public manifestations, self-confidence, the belief in easy correctability of personal mistakes. Each cognitive component of radicalistic attitudes was evaluated in 219 respondents aged from 18 to 60; then they filled the Tolerance Index, the Bass-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, Barrett Impulsivity Scale, and also evaluated their readiness to commit extreme actions for various reasons. Reliability-consistency for radical attitudes components ranged from 0.62 to 0.79. Comparison of cognitive components of radicalism with general impulsiveness, tolerance and aggression confirmed the discriminant validity of the components. Six out of seven components (except for black-and-white thinking) are related to subjective readiness for extreme actions for their beliefs and values, and four out of seven (opinion defending, acceptability of expressing aggression, self-confidence, low cost of error) remained afted statistical control for tolerance impulsiveness or aggressiveness and respondents. The obtained data confirm the validity of most of the proposed components of radical attitudes as well as their relationship to the readiness for radical (extreme) behavior.

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Zhuykova E.B., Pechnikova L.S., Ryzhov A.L. Rethinking the psychological assessment of adoptive families from constructivist perspective

The paper explores the prospects of constructivist approach to psychological assessment of adoptive parents in contemporary context characterized by tightening in the selection process of adoptive parenting candidates in Russia. The main ideas of constructivism (understanding knowledge as a construction, contextual meaning of truth, usefulness as criterion of a good knowledge) are evaluated in the light of psychological diagnostics. A review is presented of the most important postulates of the Personal constructs theory by G.Kelly, and of the studies in adoptive care and family psychology conducted following this paradigm. The process of the constructs system formation in the context of adult-child relationships, its impact on parental expectations from child and parental estimations of goodness of interaction are described in details. The approach is illustrated by the proposal of a rank repertory grid method of studying parental expectations by means of evaluation of children’s portraits. The important features of parental construing of a child that can be traced by qualitative and quantitative analysis of a grid include variety of personal constructs content, ability to modulate emotional reaction, existence of rigid stereotypes in expectations from adoption, level of mentalization an the presence of communicative distortions, specific attitudes towards family members, etc. The relevant goals of psychological counseling, family psychotherapy and targeted pre-adoption training programs are listed. Authors emphasize the focus on intersubjectivity and collaborative relationships with family inherent to constructivist approach in contrast with traditional paradigm of psychological assessment aimed at clear-cut discrimination between functional and non-functional parents by an expert.

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Sergienko A.A., Khromov A.I., Zvereva N.V. The results of clustering the data of the neuropsychological study and comparing them with the data of electroencephalography in children and adolescents with mental disorders

The results of clustering data from a neuropsychological analysis of a neurocognitive deficit in a group of mentally ill children and adolescents are presented. The profiles of neurocognitive deficiency are compared with the data of electroencephalography in the resulting clusters. The study involved 73 patients (50 boys and 23 girls). The average age of the examined was 11,3 ± 2,3 years. Diagnoses (according to ICD-10): F21, F20.8, F23, F20.x, F84.x, F4x, F9x, F3x, F06. Based on the data of neuropsychological qualitative and quantitative analysis by the clustering method (hierarchical cluster analysis), groups of mentally ill children and adolescents that are "homogeneous" in structure of neurocognitive deficit have been identified. The nosological (diagnostic) composition and profiles of the neurocognitive deficit of obtained clusters are described. The main parameters of the neurocognitive deficit that distinguish the obtained clusters are determined. The profiles of neurocognitive deficit are compared with the data of electroencephalography (EEG) in the obtained clusters. Partial correspondence of the selected clusters with a number of diagnostic clinical groups was obtained. A significant difference between the selected clusters was found in specific types of brain dysfunctions and their severity. The main structures of the brain, the functional state of which (the severity of dysfunction) influences the entry of a particular patient into a particular cluster (predictors of differences between clusters), are highlighted. These include: parietal-temporal-occipital zones of the right and left hemispheres, premotor and prefrontal frontal regions of the left hemisphere, occipital zones of the right hemisphere. Patterns of distribution of functional deficiency at the level of subcortical structures within and between clusters were found. Dysfunction of subcortical structures is characteristic of all groups, while in clusters different ratios of its severity are revealed.

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Sergienko E.A., Khlevnaya E.A., Vetrova I.I., Migun J.P. Emotional Intelligence: Development of the Russian-language TEI-method (Test of Emotional Intelligence)

The results of psychometric testing of the new method for measuring emotional intelligence as an ability – a test of emotional intelligence (TEI-method), based on the model of emotional intelligence by J.Mayer, P.Salovey and D.Caruso and psychoevolutionary theory of emotions of R.Plutchik are presented. When developing the TEI-method, the problems arising from the adaptation and standardization of the MSCEIT methodology were taken into account. Compared to the MSCEIT methodology, the TEI methodology is one more section. This section (9a, b) is aimed at measuring abilities in the field of emotional intelligence along two branches at once: identification of emotions and understanding of emotions, which allows assessing the understanding of the dynamics of changes in emotional states in an interaction situation. In sections relating to the identification of emotions ("Faces" and "Images") were created their own, original stimulus material. The changes made to the methodology eliminate the problems that have arisen in the process of adaptation and standardization of the Russian-language version of the MSCEIT prototype methodology. 1007 people aged 20 to 72 years took part in the testing of the TEI-method. Indicators of normal distribution, structural and theoretical validity, and reliability are described. The factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmator, allows us to say that the theoretical structure of the TEI methodology, which distinguishes 4 branches of emotional intelligence, corresponds to the theoretical model on the basis of which the test was built. At the same time, however, the domain of strategic intelligence is described worse by using factor models compared to the domain of experienced emotional intelligence. The results of the psychometric testing of the TEI methodology allow us to conclude that the validity and reliability of the TEI methodology as a psycho-diagnostic tool permit us to measure the current level of development of emotional intelligence.

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Mitina O.V. Perper A.M., Abdullaeva L.Sh. Study of the relationship between personal characteristics and emotional dynamics in prolonged stressful situations

The explicit and implicit positive and negative affects of 151 people were measured daily for a month. During this month the subjects (bachelor students – 85 persons) were in stressful situation caused by participation in intensive educational course and other 66 were newcomers and their stress was caused by adaptation reasons. All subjects are students of Branch Lomonosov Moscow State University in Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Dynamic characteristics for each subject were measure as Shannon entropy and lambda-parameter from logistic map helping to describe the level of each affect at time (n + 1) as function of the same affect at time n. In addition, average and variance for each affect during 30 day as static characteristics were calculated. Also the subjects were tested by methods measuring traits personal potential determining optimal personal functioning (aspects of self-regulation, styles of personal interaction and different types of activity). Static indicators (average and variance) of positive emotions directly related to personal potential, and static indicators of negative emotions related with characteristics that impede the optimal functioning of a person. Signs of correlations of static indicators with personal characteristics are more consistent than signs of correlations of dynamic indicators. So static indicators are higher and more often correlate positively with the characteristics of personal potential and negatively with characteristics that aggravate the experience of stress for positive emotions and vice versa for negative emotions. Emotional activation in the dynamic aspect (the total level of single point attractors of positive and negative emotions in a person) correlates positively with the traits of personal potential. Here a common emotional background – the level of simultaneous expression either positive or negative emotions is important and a sign of emotion is not. The relationship between personal characteristics and indicators of the emotional state manifests itself in different ways for explicit and implicit emotions. At the implicit level, connections with dynamic indicators (entropy, attractor) are more established. At an explicit level, connections with static indicators of emotional states (average, variance) are significant. It can be assumed that emotional states defined on an explicit level reflect stable personal qualities to a greater degree, and not the dynamics of emotional states.

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Ulybina E.V. The contribution of age, the nature of relationships and material independence in measuring attachment in women

According to the attachment theory of John Bowlby, working relationship models have high ontogenetic stability, however situational factors, including adverse circumstances, can have an effect on intensity of anxiety degree and avoidant behavior in relationships. One of the significant factors potentially influencing the nature of attachment to a romantic partner for women may be the level of material independence, which increases self-confidence. According to cross-cultural studies, the level of anxiety in relationships decreases with age, and the level of avoidance increases, which is due, among other things, to environmental factors. As we expect, one of these factors may be an increase in material independence, which usually increases with age. The study focuses on testing the hypothesis that the level of financial independence for women makes a greater contribution than age to reducing anxiety and increasing avoidance. Analysis of obtained data (n = 2127 females, from 21 to 60 years old with an average age of 40,1), collected via online forms in social media sites, partly proves the hypothesis. Increase of financial independence lowers level of anxiety in relationship for women in committed relationship and for single women and doesn`t contribute to changes in level of avoidance in relationship. Contribution of financial independence is more significant for women in committed relationship than for single women, contribution of age is not significant, and for single women lower level of anxiety is dependent both from age and level of financial independence. Connection between financial independence and age is insignificant in all cases.

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Huzeeva G.R., Guseltseva M.S. Features of ideas about everyday life in girls and women in a transitive society

The article presents the results of approbation of methods that allow diversifying the structure and content of everyday life in a transitive society. The structure and content of representations about everyday life in the social group of girls and women were analyzed in order to preliminary identify the diversity of perspectives in the study of this phenomenon. Introduced the construct "personal everyday life", which is understood as a holistic image, containing a set of the subject's representations about their own daily life, including the differentiation of its various spheres, types of habitual activities, awareness of the role of significant others in the daily pattern of human existence. The theoretical basis of the work served as a modern study of the psychology of everyday life, where the current transformations of different spheres of human life are considered as coping strategies. In a situation of transitivity of society, mobility and complication of social contexts of interactions, special attention is paid to flexible ways to respond to the challenges of the present. For empirical research of diversification of the everyday life sphere, special authorial techniques were developed aimed at identifying various aspects of everyday perception, reflection and evaluation of various spheres of life in real and ideal terms, highlighting the role of significant other and individual strategies for overcoming difficulties in the subject’s everyday life. A comparative study of the various characteristics of the images of personal everyday life in girls and women made it possible to identify similarities and differences in the structure and perception of everyday life in people of different ages. The increase in the role of factors of education and the information space in the daily life of a person in a transitive society, as well as the dynamics of age-related changes in the assessment of the significance of various spheres of his daily life are established. These changes fit into the global trends of modern transformation, manifested as personalization of social space, individualization of life strategies, growth of subjectivity and values ​​of self-expression, expansion of private life, change of locus of control from external to internal.

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Tikhomandritskaya O.A., Malysheva N.G., Shaekhov Z.D., Kabalnov N.A. The role of personal values in the psychological well-being of modern high school students

The article presents the results of the analysis of the values relationship (model Sh.Schwartz) and the various elements of the well-being structure (model K.Ryff) among high school students. The study involved 69 high school students from Tatarstan and Bashkortostan republics. It was found that the scale of "Personal growth" has the greatest significance in the structure of the psychological well-being of all students. It was found that the structure of psychological well-being differs depending on its level. For adolescents with a high level of well-beingthe indicators on the scales “Personal growth” and “Goals in life” were the most significant, the lowest indicators were  on the scales “Autonomy” and “Self-acceptance”. The respondents from the group with a low level of well-being have higher rates on the scales "Personal growth" and "Autonomy" and the minimum - on a scale "Self-acceptance" and "Positive attitude with others". For all respondents, the basic values of higher order turned out to be the values of “Openness to Change”, the least significant values of Self-determination. Values that are of greater importance for schoolchildren with high and low levels of well-being were also highlighted. More meaningful for high school students with a high level of well-being compared with schoolchildren with a low level of well-being is the value Benevolence (with p=0.001). When examining the relationship between well-being and values in the entire sample, a large number of correlations were found between the various components of psychological well-being and values at different levels. However, an analysis of interrelations with regard to individual components of psychological well-being demonstrates that the level of psychological well-being of high school students will be determined by how much they feel that they are involved in important groups for them. High school students with a low level of well-being, while there is a desire to become independent, are autonomous in their thinking and actions, but in this situation it is difficult to develop positive relationships with others.

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Alekseeva O.S., Rzhanova I.E. Relationships between values and personality traits

Studying of human values is one of the most popular themes in modern psychology. Researchers have defined basic values, conducted cohort and cross-cultural comparisons, determined mechanisms of values development, investigated links between values and personality traits. The aim of our study was to analyze relationships between values and Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Openness to experience) with sex and age differences. Sample included 438 individuals at the age from 18 to 79 years. To determinate human values we used Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire, to assess Big Five personality traits we used Russian version of Big Five Personality Inventory. The most important values for our respondents are Universalism, Benevolence, Security and Self-direction; the least important - Conformity, Stimulation and Power. For assessment of interrelations between values and personality features the hierarchical regression analysis was used. Conservation values (Security, Tradition and Conformity) are related with such personal traits as Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Values of Openness to change (Self-direction, Stimulation and Hedonism) linked with Openness to experience and a low Neuroticism. Important predictors for Self-Enhancement values (Power, Achievement) were low Agreeableness, high Openness to experience and high Extraversion. Values of Self-Transcendence (Universalism, Benevolence) are connected with a low Neuroticism, high Agreeableness and high Conscientiousness. It was shown that the age of participants was significant predictor for most values, except Self-direction and Benevolence.

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Khoroshilov D.A. Is anthropomorphism a methodological strategy or trap for social psychology?

The article deals with the problem of anthropomorphism as a form of social cognition from archaic times to modern science. Anthropomorphism is not just one of the main characteristics of religious-mythological and infant consciousness, but a universal cognitive characteristic of a person, that is indirectly confirmed by studies of the «theory of mind» and mentalization. Anthropomorphism was used to metaphorically explain society and culture as the image of a human – to social communities were attributed spirit and soul, group consciousness and mind, collective representations and memory, mentality, etc., which in the first half of the twentieth century were considered established tools scientific research. It is possible to make the assumption that the criticism of anthropomorphism in the history of social psychology turned into a forced acceptance of methodological strategy of individualism (change of the subject from studying the interaction of the individual and society to the analysis of the individual-subjective perception of society as an external objective reality). However, the methodological strategy of individualism turned out to be unsuitable for solving the issues posed by the non-classical philosophy of the twentieth century, with its Nietzschean desire to go beyond man’s limits. These include the antinomies of the individual and collective subject, the micro and macro levels of social cognition, which are eliminated in modern social psychology through the development of a new conceptual language. At first sight this language seems to imitate the categories of individual psychology, but it changes their content with forced tautology – an additional and repeated designation of sociality or collectivity of representations, identities, experiences, world image, which becomes a confirmation of the increased complexity of social cognition, that cannot be reduced due to anthropomorphism and individualism. Obviously, psychology should come out against these natural desires of consciousness, demonstrating that the artificial social and cultural environment of human, created by himself, paradoxically surpasses the cognitive abilities of his creator and requires other forms of scientific representation.

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2018 Vol. 11 Issue 62